Scare quotes also called shudder quotes ,   sneer quotes ,  and quibble marks are quotation marks that writers place around a word or phrase to signal that they are using it in an ironic , referential, or otherwise non-standard sense. Elizabeth Anscombe coined the term scare quotes as it refers to punctuation marks in , in an essay entitled "Aristotle and the Sea Battle", published in Mind. Writers use scare quotes for a variety of reasons. They can imply doubt or ambiguity in words or ideas within the marks,  or even outright contempt.
Quotes When Nothing Is Being Quoted | MLA Style Center
I Language Focus: Inversions. You already know that English usually requires an inverted word order for questions. You also probably know that a different word order is required if. Not only has the author presented some valuable new information. In no case do the authors provide any statistical information about their results. Particularly prominent were functional strategies Functional strategies.
The reason for this is that it is often entirely unclear what the inverted commas mean. Or it could mean that I wanted to stress the etymology of dis-like. Or that in some other way, I want to communicate to you that I am raising my eyebrows at the word, or that the inverted commas are there purely to indicate that I distance myself from the word.
The use of single quotes [ ' Conventionally, most English speaking countries use double quotes to mark direct speech and single quotes to mark speech within speech. In the UK , while both styles of quotes is accepted to mark direct speech, the use of single quotes is more predominant. In general, quotation marks are used to mark direct speech in a text, to indicate irony, or to highlight the title of works that are part of a larger whole — like chapters of a novel, an article in a magazine or newspaper, or an episode of a television series. In America, Canada , Australia and New Zealand, the general rule is that double quotes are used to denote direct speech.