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New Orleans massacre of 1866
"From the Desire to Mark Essex: The Catalysts of Militarization for the" by Derrick W.A. Martin
Nordette N. Adams , University of New Orleans Follow. This thesis asserts that Marcus Bruce Christian , a New Orleans, Louisiana, black poet, writer, and historian, used his diary and notes as a site of rhetorical education and as a space in which he constructed and reinforced a Duboisian ethos, a particular type of black identity and character shaped by the political rhetoric of W. Du Bois. Maintaining this ethos, Christian, an autodidact throughout most of his life, negotiated a society strangled by white supremacist ideology and resisted being interpellated into the negative black identity constructed by a hostile and stifling Jim Crow South. The University of New Orleans and its agents retain the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible this dissertation or thesis in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. The author retains all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis or dissertation.
Amanda Adams wins Springfield Public Schools teacher of the year
The Memphis massacre of  was a series of violent events that occurred from May 1 to 3, in Memphis, Tennessee. The racial violence was ignited by political, social, and racial tensions following the American Civil War , in the early stages of Reconstruction. Federal troops were sent to quell the violence and peace was restored on the third day. A subsequent report by a joint Congressional Committee detailed the carnage, with blacks suffering most of the injuries and deaths by far: 46 black and 2 white people were killed, 75 black people injured, over black persons robbed, 5 black women raped, and 91 homes, 4 churches and 8 schools every black church and school burned in the black community. Many black people fled the city permanently; by , their population had fallen by one quarter compared to
The department's jurisdiction covers all of Orleans Parish , while the city is divided into eight police districts. After New Orleans was founded by French colonists in , the policing of the city was done by military forces. These were alternating French, Spanish and French under differing governmental rule. The account said, "Crime had reached such proportions by the mids that a full-time city police force was required. The New Orleans police were highly militarized from the late s onwards, as it policed large concentrations of slaves.