Today, his most widely read works are the Theory of the Novel of and History and Class Consciousness of This text became an important reference point both for critical social theory and for many currents of countercultural thought. He was also active as a politician in Hungary in both the revolution of and during the events of In , the family was admitted into the nobility. He worked and participated in intellectual circles in Budapest, Berlin where he was influenced by Georg Simmel , Florence and Heidelberg. Between and he worked on a first attempt to formulate a systematic approach to art, which remained unpublished during his lifetime GW
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He was also a businessman, journalist and political activist, whose father was an owner of large textile factories in Salford Lancashire, England and Barmen , Prussia now Wuppertal , Germany. Engels developed what is now known as Marxism together with Karl Marx. In , he published The Condition of the Working Class in England , based on personal observations and research in English cities. In , Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx and also authored and co-authored primarily with Marx many other works. Later, Engels supported Marx financially, allowing him to do research and write Das Kapital.
Eric Arthur Blair 25 June — 21 January ,  known by his pen name George Orwell , was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic. As a writer, Orwell produced literary criticism and poetry, fiction and polemical journalism; and is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier , documenting his experience of working-class life in the north of England, and Homage to Catalonia , an account of his experiences soldiering for the Republican faction of the Spanish Civil War — , are as critically respected as his essays on politics and literature, language and culture. Orwell's work remains influential in popular culture and in political culture , and the adjective " Orwellian "—describing totalitarian and authoritarian social practices—is part of the English language, like many of his neologisms , such as " Big Brother ", " Thought Police ", " Two Minutes Hate ", " Room ", " memory hole ", " Newspeak ", " doublethink ", " proles ", " unperson ", and " thoughtcrime ". When Eric was one year old, his mother took him and Marjorie to England.
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